The Complex Genetic Architecture of the Metabolome
Here is yet another organismal study demonstrating the complexity of the mapping relationship between genotype and phenotype. They find that metabolites are canalized and sensitive to environmental perturbation. They recommend gene-environment interaction analysis for GWAS. If Arabidopsis thaliana is this complex, why would we expect Homo sapiens to be any simpler? Further, this kind of complexity exists at the endophenotype level. Now plug all this metabolite variation into many additional layers of biochemistry and physiology for mapping genotype variation to susceptibility of disease.
Chan EKF, Rowe HC, Hansen BG, Kliebenstein DJ (2010) The Complex Genetic Architecture of the Metabolome. PLoS Genet 6(11): e1001198 [PLoS]
Discovering links between the genotype of an organism and its metabolite levels can increase our understanding of metabolism, its controls, and the indirect effects of metabolism on other quantitative traits. Recent technological advances in both DNA sequencing and metabolite profiling allow the use of broad-spectrum, untargeted metabolite profiling to generate phenotypic data for genome-wide association studies that investigate quantitative genetic control of metabolism within species. We conducted a genome-wide association study of natural variation in plant metabolism using the results of untargeted metabolite analyses performed on a collection of wild Arabidopsis thaliana accessions. Testing 327 metabolites against >200,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms identified numerous genotype–metabolite associations distributed non-randomly within the genome. These clusters of genotype–metabolite associations (hotspots) included regions of the A. thaliana genome previously identified as subject to recent strong positive selection (selective sweeps) and regions showing trans-linkage to these putative sweeps, suggesting that these selective forces have impacted genome-wide control of A. thaliana metabolism. Comparing the metabolic variation detected within this collection of wild accessions to a laboratory-derived population of recombinant inbred lines (derived from two of the accessions used in this study) showed that the higher level of genetic variation present within the wild accessions did not correspond to higher variance in metabolic phenotypes, suggesting that evolutionary constraints limit metabolic variation. While a major goal of genome-wide association studies is to develop catalogues of intraspecific variation, the results of multiple independent experiments performed for this study showed that the genotype–metabolite associations identified are sensitive to environmental fluctuations. Thus, studies of intraspecific variation conducted via genome-wide association will require analyses of genotype by environment interaction. Interestingly, the network structure of metabolite linkages was also sensitive to environmental differences, suggesting that key aspects of network architecture are malleable.