Modifiers of the Genotype–Phenotype Map: Hsp90 and Beyond
A great review on the role of HSP90 and its epistatic effects
Schell R, Mullis M, Ehrenreich IM. Modifiers of the Genotype-Phenotype Map: Hsp90 and Beyond. PLoS Biol. 2016 Nov 10;14(11):e2001015. [PLoS]
Disruption of certain genes alters the heritable phenotypic variation among individuals. Research on the chaperone Hsp90 has played a central role in determining the genetic basis of this phenomenon, which may be important to evolution and disease. Key studies have shown that Hsp90 perturbation modifies the effects of many genetic variants throughout the genome. These modifications collectively transform the genotype–phenotype map, often resulting in a net increase or decrease in heritable phenotypic variation. Here, we summarize some of the foundational work on Hsp90 that led to these insights, discuss a framework for interpreting this research that is centered upon the standard genetics concept of epistasis, and propose major questions that future studies in this area should address.